Water comprises an approximate of 80% of body mass hence, the drinking water is an important requirement for survival. Since it is contributor for better health, the drinking water we consume daily should be clean, free form pollution and contaminants of all sorts.
Most of the water supplied for drinking to the human in all parts of the world is through rivers, than any other sources like wells, ponds etc. which come in the second place.
River water is main supply of water to all the major cities, towns and even to many villages. The river water is used for domestic human daily usage, for drinking, agriculture. industrial usage etc. But due to advent of industrial revolution and rise in the use of automobiles and growth in population, the river are subjected to great deal of pollution.
Pollution of river water can lead to hazardous risks to humans, animals and also plants.
Since rivers flow through multiple human localities or cities, polluting the river water at one place can effect the people on the next places of flow.
River pollution leads to accumulation of large amounts of waste in the Sea’s and oceans. This greatly endangers life of marine animals.
- Due to human dumping of waste and other harmful substances in to river water directly.
- By release of industrial sewage into river water.
- Contamination during rains due to flow of rain water from contaminated land into rivers.
- In-case of floods where water from river flows over surrounding lands.
- Due to pesticides and other toxic chemicals used by farmers near the river canals which supply water the cities and towns ahead.
- Sewage and water pollution, this is another form of water pollution where by drainage of sewage and normal public water supply mix up. This is seen especially in cities where water is pumped from distant out places. In course of travel in pipe lines, there are chances of any drainage system flowing nearby. This provides a chances of mixing of both waters leading to sewage water pollution.
- Groundwater contamination due to land and air pollution. This is mostly due to heavy dump of chemicals, pesticides and other harmful substances on land which may percolate into deep ground layers causing pollution.
- Avoidance of dumping of human waste directly into the river water.
- Proper treatment of waste by industries before release into rivers. The waste must be detoxified and rendered harmless.
- Purification of water during rains before using for cooking, drinking and other domestic purposes.
- Maintenance of proper river banks and repair them when damaged.
- Proper water treatment by the government authorities to ensure pure drinking water supply to the masses.
Other types of Water pollution:
♠ Due to leakage of sewage water and mixing with that of pure water supplied by municipal water pipes. This happens when both sewage water draining pipes and pure water supply pipes are passinf close to each other and there are some leaks in the pipes.
♠ Due to air pollution by gases etc which inturn return to ground through rains and contaminate ground water and river waters.
♠ Due to leakage of petroleum and other oils from vehiles etc on to the local roads which are mixed up with ground and other water sources.