Germination of Seeds & The 3 Important Stages Involved

Seeds are dormant forms of life of the plants.

They contain the endosperm which is the nutrition required for the embryo to grow into a plant.

Seed are the products of sexual reproduction in plants.

From seeds, seedlings and plants sprout out spontaneously under suitable conditions when put into soil.

The seed is the way plants propagate their offspring in different regions.

Some of them fall near the plant while some are carried over by winds, birds, animals etc to far off places.

But where ever they fall and grow, the method of germination of seed is the same for most plants.

Seeds have an embryo which is the actual diploid cell having life. Besides the embryo, reserve food material necessary for seed germination is present.
It mostly contains starch, fats and other reserve food material with least amount of moisture.
Hence the seed appears very dry and can be stored for many years without any damage by infection etc.

Stages involved in plant seed Germination :

Seed germination means the growth of embryo into seedling and plant. Most of the higher plants produce fruits which also bear the seeds. These seeds fall down from the plant and get spread to different places by wind, grazing animals etc. The steps of germination of seeds are based on the time period and physiological changes.
There are three different stages of seed germination viz.
1. Imbibition phase.
2. Latent phase.
3. Exponential growth phase.
Imbibition phase:
This is a phase where seeds imbibe water from surroundings. When a seed falls onto soil, it receives sufficient water and moisture. Then the actual process of germination starts.
The water permeates through the seed coat and the seed material inside is drenched.
The internal seed content imbibes (absorbs) water and the seed swells. This puts pressure on seed coat to provide eruption for germination. All the parts of a germinating seed become soft and smooth in this phase.
Latent phase:
The food material inside the seed, now in presence of water provide sufficient energy. This helps the embryo to sprout out of the seed as a seedling. There is an internal active metabolism for the seed. This is a bit long time-consuming process so it remain latent. The metabolic reaction is active and there is release of heat. This stage makes the seed ready to sprout out.
Exponential growth phase:
All the biochemical reaction get activated and plant growth hormones then guide the process of germination.
By regulation of auxin a growth hormone, the root tends to grow into the soil while the stem forms and grows towards light. This process continues till the germination of seed into small plant is complete.
Till the level of formation of leaves, the growth of plant is sustained by reserve food material, water and oxygen from air.
Once leaves form, food is synthesized from light using carbon-dioxide and water.
Thus the seed germination process ends with formation of seedling which grows into big plant.

Factors affecting germination of seeds:

Seed germination is affected by many factors like

Rains /water supply, climate, season, predators, infection to seeds, fertility of soil, temperature, sun light, Oxygen  etc. Among them, rains, water supply, soil fertility, temperature at optimum levels favor germination while predator, rough climates inhibit seed germination.

Water: Seeds are most driest forms and they require water for germination. It helps seed in

  • Activation of enzymes to digest reserve food 
  • To rupture seed coat
  • To mediate all the physiological processes of seed.



  • Oxygen is vital to oxidize reserve food and provide energy for seed germination. Without oxygen seed do not germinate as seen in seeds sown very deep in the soil.


  • Seed germination varies in plants due to light. Some require light for germination while in other germination is inhibited by light. But light seems to guide direction of roots and stem from the seed.


Seed dormancy:

  • Seeds germinate immediately after being sown. But some seeds stay inactive in the soil for some time period and then go for germination. This period of rest is called seed dormancy.


Seeds ability to germinate varies on the method of storage, health of the parent, age of seed, maturity of seed, infections etc. So the seeds with good viability germinate faster.

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  1. saranya

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