Insecticides and Pesticides| Their uses & toxicity

Insecticides and Pesticides are some of the most toxic chemicals used in present world on regular basis.

Insecticides are agents used to kill or repel the insects present in a vicinity. The insects commonly aimed are mosquitoes, flies, cockroaches, bugs etc. These insecticides are used regularly in indoors like in homes, hotels, theaters, restaurants, recreation clubs and also to a great extent in out doors like agriculture farms and gardens. Their use is inevitable as these insects cause trouble to humans and animals by spread of dreadful diseases like malaria, dengue, filaria, typhoid, cholera etc. n plants they are also responsible for spread of infections and sometimes they themselves cause diseases in plants.

Pesticides: These are chemical agents used to kill pests on plants. They include insecticides, anti-molluscs and also antimicrobial like antibacterial, antivirals, anti-fungi agents etc. They are mostly aimed to safe guard agriculture farms and gardens for better yield.

Uses of pesticides and Insecticides:

They are useful for both agriculture and human purposes like

In agriculture:

1. Plant pesticides increase crop yield in agriculture by protecting plants.

2. Pesticide use also controls spread of diseases by fungi, bacteria, insects from one region of farms to other region or even countries. It was seen that some pests which were not present came here due to import of wheat or other countries. So the insect or bacteria if controlled, diseases spread in between countries or places can be prevented.

In Human places of residence:

1. Household pesticides repel insects causing trouble and pain by sting to humans and animals in their place of stay like homes, sties etc.

2. They even prevent spread of diseases like malaria, chickungunya, filaria etc.

 Effect of pesticides & insecticides :

Pesticides toxicity have hazardous effects on plants, soil, humans, animals and birds. The effect is poisonous and many physiological systems are affected by them. Due to pollution of soil, air and water these chemicals and pesticides get into the body.

♦ Chemistry of pesticides is organophosphate in nature. Once inside the body they cause various nervous system related disorders, nausea vomiting, sedation, burr vision and sometimes even death.

♦ Further they kill useful insects like honey bees, butterflies which may enhance cross-pollination in crops for better yield.

♦ Honey bees form nectar and are useful for honey manufacturing industries. These industries suffer due to heavy pesticide pollution.

Pesticides in the food make the quality of food grain less demanding in the market and hence the farmer gets a low price for his yield.


Classification of pesticides based on their toxicity:

Insecticide pesticide difference is not seen in terms of their toxicity they are equally toxic.The pesticides are classified into four categories as indicated by their labels.

Labels are either Red, Yellow, Green or Blue based on their order of decrease in poisonous effect to humans.

Red indicates extremely poisonous.

Yellow indicates poisonous.

Green indicates moderately poisonous

Blue indicates low poisonous.

Many pesticides under red label are banned now.

Pesticide pollution:

Environmental effects of pesticides is a concern now. These pesticides are spread into air, water bodies like rivers, canals, soil due to their regular use in the form of spraying, powders, solutions in agriculture. In homes and garden when used  as mosquito repellents, bed bug spray etc. in homes on regular basis enter into physiology of humans and animals on breathing.

Those food grains grown in pesticide polluted soil enter the food chain of all the living animals.

The pesticides entering water resources travel to other places spreading the pollution of these pesticide.

Degradation of pesticides in soil occurs over a period of weeks so the pollution takes time to decrease. Those pesticide residues in water can enter the rivers and seas their by deteriorating the health of water and land animals.

The best way to minimize human toxicity and also prevent environmental pollution by increased rate of degradation, one has to rely on natural pesticides.

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