Pollution Definition, Introduction & Types

Pollution definition: It is an unconcerned and uncontrolled contamination of limited natural resources available for safe survival of living beings including humans.

Its untoward effects are detrimental for the healthy survival and also the contamination in most cases is not completely reversible.

In short it is defined as contamination of natural environment with pollutants hazardous to human and animal health.

Pollution introduction:

In the recent times we hear many a concerns from social activists and groups regarding pollution crisis. In fact there is immediate requirement to contain it and minimize for better health and prevent endanger to valuable species on the earth.

Pollution is drastically rising in all the countries due to rise in human activity associated with modern technology and population growth. Even the daily normal livelihood requirements are high contributing factors to never ending pollution of all sorts. Pollution poses health hazards, endangers wild life and makes the planet unsafe for future human survival. The present technology and desire for development adds more to pollution but the steps taken to control or decrease it are very meager.

Types of pollution:

The natural resources which are freely available a gift of nature are polluted and they can be broadly divided into following types like

Air pollution: The contamination of air with dangerous gases like carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, methane and other harmful gases due to emission from automobiles (powered by petroleum), industries and sometimes by natural calamities like volcanoes. Another type is particulate air pollution, seems quite unaware to many but if you stay near any industry, you will notice that there is always some sort of particulate dust from the chimneys of the factory. This is harmful especially to the respiratory system. This sort of pollution can be minimized by decrease in use of petroleum related automobiles and sufficient growth of trees.

Water pollution: Contamination of both drinking water from rivers, ponds and also sea water by discharge of large amounts of human, industrial wastes leads to water pollution. This makes the water harmful to drink, endanger lives of sea animals etc.

Land pollution: Land pollution is one where there is excess dumping. This can be a chemical or waste material. Polluting the land by harmful chemicals can lead to entry of pollutants into food chain. This is commonly caused by excess use of fertilizers in agriculture, irresponsible disposable of industrial wastes etc. Even defecating in the open spaces also causes pollution. This leads to health issues like malnutrition as pollutants pass through plants to humans and animals.

Sound pollution: Also called as noise pollution is a disturbance of silent environment with harsh loud noises. This is mostly due to automobile sounds, the audio systems used for fun or public speeches, temples, mosques, churches etc. This pollution has severe impact especially on old people, small children. Even horn from vehicles and industrial sirens also contribute to this noise pollution.

Dust pollution: This is pollution where in the contamination is due to dust particles in air. This can be from soil, roads, farming, and even due to mining etc. From farms this dust pollution occurs due to pollen grains as a part of pollination. While on the roads it is due to unclean road over run by vehicles. This air contamination by dust creates trouble for proper breathing leading to infections, congestion of breath etc.

Radiation pollution: This is the pollution due to abnormal radiation in the environment. This occurs due to use of radioactive elements from atomic energy stations.  From cell and mobile towers, by use of wireless Internet access modems etc. This is one of the serious types of pollutions and also neglected one with the interest of business. Even it is said that birds like sparrows and insects like honey bees seem to be getting extinct from human areas due to these radiations.

Thermal pollution: This pollution arises due to release of excess heat from thermal power plants, industries involved in metals molding etc. The heat is released into the surrounding air rising the temperature of the locality drastically. This can be especially troublesome during summers.

Light pollution: This might seem quite strange but it is one of the common pollutions. Have you ever tried to see the sky for stars or for lunar eclipse when there is a cricket or football match going on in a nearby stadium? It is quite impossible. Even heavy light of opposite vehicles on the same road can lead to distractions for drivers. Light pollution effects especially disturbing to sleep of humans, birds and other animals. This might some times affect the natural body rhythm or circadian clock.

Plastic pollution: This is quite not a type but it deserves to be said one. The plastic and polythene due to their ability to withstand decomposition for years together add up to pollution. Plastic pollution can contribute to air, water and soil pollution.


  1. Pollution Guide
    • Subham kumar sanu
  2. nirmit jalan
    • ranga.nr
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