14 Types of Cells in the Human Body & their Functions

Cells in the human Body:

This is the lesson we likely come across in the chapter of human anatomy and physiology.

If you are perceiving a degree in medicine or degree in science then this is topic is important.

Human body has a number of cells and related tissues.

Since the Cell is the basic unit of any tissue, it decides the type, nature and function of the tissues.

A group of different types of cells form tissues in the human body and one or more types of tissues form organs. For more detailed study go through an anatomy & physiology book.

These body organs working in mutual manner form the organ systems.

If any tissue is damaged, it actually means the cells and cell structure in the organ is damaged. These damaged cells decides the fate of entire tissue i.e. either to recover or die. Many cells have internal tendency to multiply and help in repair while few don’t have this property. Let’s see list of cells of human body with their functions.

Different Types of cells in the human body (based on tissue formation)

1.Bone cells (Osteocytes) They are the toughest body Cell as they are bound together by calcium and phosphate. As you knows they give strength, support and frame-work to the body by enclosing organs in skeletal system i.e bones.

2. Cartilage cells (chondrocytes)– These cells are similar to bone cells but the surrounding material is just loose and flexible  compared to those of bone cells. Hence they are freely bendable. They are present in ear bone (hence ears are fold-able), in between large bones to help them bend and move freely like in between two ribs, spinal bones, joints etc.

3. Nerve cells: These cells are very long and have many branching at either ends. Their specialty is they never multiply in one’s life time.They are present all over the body and are sometimes as long as few meters long. They are human brain cells and are found in plenty in brain and the spinal cord and form the nervous tissue.



4. Epithelial cell: These cells are very simple cells which form covering of other cells. These cells form covering layers of all the organs and hence are preset in skin, scalp, respiratory tract, in the buccal cavity surface etc. Ex: Skin cells, mucous cells.

5.Muscle cells: These cells are of muscle tissue mostly long, large and have ability to contract and relax providing movements. They are three types as skeletal, cardiac and smooth muscles.

  • Skeletal muscles cells are attached to long bones and assist in their movement (by muscle contraction).
  • Cardiac muscles cells are present only in heart muscle and responsible for heart beats.

types of cell in body


  • Smooth muscle cells are flexible yet, can contract and relax and are present in stomach, intestine, blood vessel walls (vascular tissue) etc. helping in movement of food through the gut.

smooth muscle-1


 Secretory cell: These cells as name indicates are secretory in nature. They form glands and secrete something important ex; pancreatic cells which secrete insulin, glucagon, salivary gland secrete salivary amylase, sebaceous gland secrete oil on the skin etc.They are found in all secretory organs.

7.Adipose cells: These are fat cells and are storage in nature to store fat. Especially seen in the soles, palms, bums etc. They reduce friction to the body.

8. Blood cells: These cells include RBC’s, WBC, Thormbocytes etc. They are always motile and never stay in one place. They have limited life span and they never multiply to form new cells. Instead new cells are formed from other cells.

Types of cells in human body (based on their function)

Conductive cells: Nerve cells, muscle cells come under this category. They have internal ability to conduct an electric impulse from region to other distant region in the body.

Connective cells: Bone cells, blood cells come under this category. They help connect other cells and tissues.

Glandular cells: These cells secretory cells. They form glands like pancreas,salivary glands etc and help in production of enzymes, hormones etc.

Storage cells: Adipose cells, some liver cells etc act to store materials like fat for later use. This fat is consumed in time of starvation and also in excess cold temperatures.

Supportive cells: These are the cells which are present as support to adjacent cells. Ex: Glial cells in the brain and spinal cord help provide nourishment to the nerve cells and also protect them from shocks and trauma.

Special type of cells: These are specialized cells with important functions in the body. They are

a) Sperms: These cells unlike others are haploid (i.e. have only one set of chromosome). They are present only in the males after puberty. These cells have a tail which enables them to swim and move in the female uterus. They have an enzyme namely hayaluronidase which helps them penetrate through uterine tissue and reach oocytes.

sperm cells-


b) Oocytes: Cells are haploid and present in adult female genital system. They are also haploid like sperms. They start to form after puberty and continue so till the stage of menopause. They accept sperm cells to form zygote (fertilized egg). This further grows in the uterus to form a baby.

c) Stem cells: These are basic cells or parent cells which can differentiate into any cell based on the requirement. These stem cells in human body are given so importance due to their promising role in treatment of disorders in future. See the article on stem cell types.

d) Rods & cones: These cells are in eye and have capacity to capture image color and light.

e) Ciliated cells: These cells are present as lining of respiratory tract, esophagus etc. and have a pointed thread like cilia which move in one particular direction to pass material.

Human tissue types are again dependent on the types of cells involved in their formation.

f) Blood cells: These are quite interesting cells and they are never attached to one another. Blood cells freely flow in the liquid blood. Some of them are not alive (RBC‘s) while others have varied shapes like WBC, platelets (spindle shape). Further these WBC’s are of different types. Of them macrophages have ability to eat (gulp) any foreign particle like bacteria in the body. Hence they are body defense cells.

There is no big difference in between cells of animals and humans while that of animal and plant cells have a lot.

More details on cells and functions can be found in the books of Human Anatomy & Physiology.


  1. Browine
    • ranga.nr
  2. Tremaine
  3. fatihah
  4. bob
  5. Asad
  6. Ousmansowe
  8. harry mclean
  9. Bans
  10. Abhishek
      • Abhishek
  11. Taiwo solarin
  12. lizzy
  13. kutty
  14. ashleigh dean
  15. bhjkloiuyd
  16. debby
  17. thatoneguywhoreadthisarticle
  18. Amanda Isokaanta 14 years
  19. Alsie Bruce
  20. Ali
  21. Ali
  22. kalid said
  23. Jarrod Starkey
    • ranga.nr
  24. farhan
    • ranga.nr
      • kashish
  25. Ekle Steve
  26. Amrad
  27. muruga
  28. yolo
  29. Amy
  30. kashish
    • ranga.nr
  31. kashish
  32. Abdul Basit Khan
  33. Ogo bob
  34. Mohana Priyaa
  35. avbi
  36. rishi
  37. joe
  38. Mona Hussain khan
  39. shruthi
  40. sudhamathi
  41. Whizdom
  42. neville.ccs@gmail.com
  43. Chikki Doma
  44. apil joy
  45. Juana
  46. Keanu ANDOH
  47. aaliyah
  48. balabalabombom!!!
  49. trudy
  50. liam head
  51. Miguel
  52. Alice
  53. basidia keen jabbi
  54. fatbob
  55. malek

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *