8 Types of stem cells: Their differences and sources

Stem cells are important health rescuers in future so now a days everyone seems to be speaking about stem cell storage or its importance.

The stem cells which we generally hear are embryonic stem cells, adipose stem cells, amniotic stem cells, umbilical cord stem cells, dental stem cells, bone marrow stem cells, mammary stem cells etc.

All the types of stem cells have similar characters like ability to differentiate and form new cells or tissues. But among them there are few differences.

 

What are the different types of stem cells:

Stem cells are basically of two types as

  1. CD34 stem cells
  2. Mesenchymal stem cells.

CD34 stem cells  are the stem cells which can form any type of tissue i.e they can differentiate into any type of cells in the body. They are obtained from tissues of blood source like bone marrow, placental blood etc. They are widely applicable in the body repair and damage. They are collected from umbilical cord blood, bone marrow for the purpose. The quantity of stem cells obtained from these sources is enormous and hence suitable for extensive use. They can form almost any type of tissue in the body.

Mesenchymal stem cells as the name indicates are obtained from mesenchyme i.e the connective tissue in the body like adipose tissue, placental tissue etc. They  are able to differentiate and form only connective tissue but not blood and related tissues. They have limited application in compared to CD 34 stem cells. The tissue which they can form are bone, cartilage, neuron, muscle. In comparison to CD34 ells their potential for effective repair is low. For instance there are doubts if the  neurons produced by these stem cells are functional. More over the number of stem cells which can be obtained from these sources are low in comparison to that obtained form CD34 stem cells source.

Different types of stem cells based on their sources:

There are few sources from which stem cells can be obtained like

Adipose stem cells (ACSs)–stem cells derived from fat–are a promising source of cells for use in plastic surgery and regenerative medicine, according to a special review in the June issue of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery(R), the official medical journal of the American Society of Plastic Surgeons (ASPS)..easily derived from human fat, re “multipotent” cells that can be induced to develop into other kinds of cells–not only fat cells, but also bone, cartilage and muscle cells.Adipose stem cells promote the development of new blood vessels (angiogenesis) and seem to represent an “immune privileged” set of cells that blocks inflammation.

Dental stem cells: Dental stem cells are those derived from soft tissue pulp inside the teeth. They are few in number but have capacity to differentiate. They are a mesenchymal type of stem cells. They can form muscle, adipose, neuronal, bone and cartilage tissues.

Amniotic stem cells: These are mesenchymal stem cells obtained from amniotic fluid. Amniotic fluid is one present around the fetus in pregnant woman to nourish and safe guard the baby. They can differentiate into connective tissues like bone, skin, nerves, muscle etc.

Umbilical cord stem cells: These stem cells as mentioned above are CD34 cells and have wide applications. They are obtained from umbilical cord of new-born baby and stored in stem cell banks. They have advantages like being available in sufficient quantity, ability to differentiate into blood and mesenchymal cells, have long life and retain full potential to multiply and differentiate. Hence they are given priority for storage in stem cell banks.
Bone marrow stem cells: These cells obtained from bone marrow are CD34 cells with capacity to differentiate into any type of tissue but they are not available in huge quantity like that of umbilical cord stem cells.
Embryonic stem cells: These cells are obtained from fertilized human embryo. They are able to multiply into any type of cells and are also indefinitely.

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